Open Access Research Article

Time-Frequency and Time-Scale-Based Fragile Watermarking Methods for Image Authentication

Braham Barkat1 and Farook Sattar2*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Electrical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi, UAE

2 Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 2010, 2010:408109  doi:10.1155/2010/408109

Published: 9 August 2010


Two fragile image watermarking methods are proposed for image authentication. The first method is based on time-frequency analysis and the second one is based on time-scale analysis. For the first method, the watermark is chosen as an arbitrary nonstationary signal with a particular signature in the time-frequency plane. Experimental results show that this technique is very sensitive to many attacks such as cropping, scaling, translation, JPEG compression, and rotation, making it very effective in image authentication. For the second method, based on a wavelet-domain multiresolution analysis, quantization index modulation (QIM) embedding scheme and arbitrary frequency-modulated (FM) chirp watermarks are used in the implementation. In this blind technique, the original watermark is needed neither for the content integrity verification of the original image nor for the content quality assessment of the distorted image.