We propose a fast face detector using an efficient architecture based on a hierarchical cascade of neural network ensembles with which we achieve enhanced detection accuracy and efficiency. First, we propose a way to form a neural network ensemble by using a number of neural network classifiers, each of which is specialized in a subregion in the face-pattern space. These classifiers complement each other and, together, perform the detection task. Experimental results show that the proposed neural-network ensembles significantly improve the detection accuracy as compared to traditional neural-network-based techniques. Second, in order to reduce the total computation cost for the face detection, we organize the neural network ensembles in a pruning cascade. In this way, simpler and more efficient ensembles used at earlier stages in the cascade are able to reject a majority of nonface patterns in the image backgrounds, thereby significantly improving the overall detection efficiency while maintaining the detection accuracy. An important advantage of the new architecture is that it has a homogeneous structure so that it is suitable for very efficient implementation using programmable devices. Our proposed approach achieves one of the best detection accuracies in literature with significantly reduced training and detection cost.
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