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This article is part of the series Cooperative Localization in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks.

Open Access Research Article

A Wireless Sensor Network for RF-Based Indoor Localization

Ville A Kaseva1*, Mikko Kohvakka1, Mauri Kuorilehto2, Marko Hännikäinen1 and Timo D Hämäläinen1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Computer Systems, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 553, 33101 Tampere, Finland

2 Nokia, Devices R&D, Visiokatu 3, 33720 Tampere, Finland

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EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 2008, 2008:731835  doi:10.1155/2008/731835

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://asp.eurasipjournals.com/content/2008/1/731835

Received:14 August 2007
Revisions received:11 January 2008
Accepted:26 March 2008
Published:8 April 2008

© 2008 The Author(s).

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


An RF-based indoor localization design targeted for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is presented. The energy-efficiency of mobile location nodes is maximized by a localization medium access control (LocMAC) protocol. For location estimation, a location resolver algorithm is introduced. It enables localization with very scarce energy and processing resources, and the utilization of simple and low-cost radio transceiver HardWare (HW) without received signal strength indicator (RSSI) support. For achieving high energy-efficiency and minimizing resource usage, LocMAC is tightly cross-layer designed with the location resolver algorithm. The presented solution is fully calibration-free and can cope with coarse grained and unreliable ranging measurements. We analyze LocMAC power consumption and show that it outperforms current state-of-the-art WSN medium access control (MAC) protocols in location node energy-efficiency. The feasibility of the proposed localization scheme is validated by experimental measurements using real resource constrained WSN node prototypes. The prototype network reaches accuracies ranging from 1 m to 7 m.With one anchor node per a typical office room, the current room of the localized node is determined with 89.7% precision.

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