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Open Access Research Article

Perceptual Audio Hashing Functions

Hamza Özer12*, Bülent Sankur1, Nasir Memon3 and Emin Anarım1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Boğaziçi University, Bebek, Istanbul 34342, Turkey

2 National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology, Tubitak, Gebze, Kocaeli 41470, Turkey

3 Department of Computer and Information Science, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA

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EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 2005, 2005:658950  doi:10.1155/ASP.2005.1780

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://asp.eurasipjournals.com/content/2005/12/658950

Received:13 September 2004
Revisions received:16 February 2005
Published:28 July 2005

© 2005 Özer et al.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Perceptual hash functions provide a tool for fast and reliable identification of content. We present new audio hash functions based on summarization of the time-frequency spectral characteristics of an audio document. The proposed hash functions are based on the periodicity series of the fundamental frequency and on singular-value description of the cepstral frequencies. They are found, on one hand, to perform very satisfactorily in identification and verification tests, and on the other hand, to be very resilient to a large variety of attacks. Moreover, we address the issue of security of hashes and propose a keying technique, and thereby a key-dependent hash function.

perceptual audio hashing; content identification; singular value decomposition; least-square periodicity estimation

Research Article