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Open Access Research Article

A Survey of Watermarking Algorithms for Image Authentication

Christian Rey* and Jean-Luc Dugelay

Author Affiliations

Multimedia Department, Eurecom Institute, 2229 route de Crêtes, B.P. 193, Sophia Antipolis, F-06904, France

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EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 2002, 2002:218932  doi:10.1155/S1110865702204047

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://asp.eurasipjournals.com/content/2002/6/218932

Received:20 November 2001
Revisions received:8 March 2002
Published:26 June 2002

© 2002 Rey and Dugelay

Digital image manipulation software is now readily available on personal computers. It is therefore very simple to tamper with any image and make it available to others. Insuring digital image integrity has therefore become a major issue. Watermarking has become a popular technique for copyright enforcement and image authentication. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of emerging techniques for detecting whether image tampering has taken place. Compared to the techniques and protocols for security usually employed to perform this task, the majority of the proposed methods based on watermarking, place a particular emphasis on the notion of content authentication rather than strict integrity. In this paper, we introduce the notion of image content authentication and the features required to design an effective authentication scheme. We present some algorithms, and introduce frequently used key techniques.

image processing; security; cryptography; watermarking; content authentication; review; state of the art

Research Article